harvard writing style
Although there seems to be some ambiguity as to the exact origin of what is now referred to as the Harvard style of referencing, an article in the British Medical Journal sheds some light on the issue:
Harvard is a parenthetical author-date reference system. Harvard reference style originates from Harvard University, where a professor of zoology in the 1880s first used parenthetical references.
Other styles that are used at Reading include Harvard, Oxford, APA, Chicago and Vancouver (numeric).
Styles of referencing
The words and ideas that you read as you prepare to write an essay or other written assignment are the intellectual property of the person/s who wrote them, and these must be referenced. Failure to do so is plagiarism, which is penalised by examiners. You must also reference all images, tables, and graphs taken from printed or internet sources.
Centre for Academic Writing (CAW) has developed a series of academic writing resources, including The Coventry University Guide to Referencing in Harvard Style (PDF), which can be also accessed via LibGuide. This is a simple system which is used internationally by scholars and researchers. The lecturing team at the CAW have customised the various versions of this referencing style into one user-friendly guide for use by students and staff at Coventry. The guide also contains a glossary of key terms used in referencing.
Harvard Referencing Guide
Unlike many referencing styles, there is no source document for a Harvard Guide. This guide is based on Commonwealth of Australia 2002, Style Manual for authors, editors and printers , 6th edn , rev. by Snooks & Co, John Wiley & Sons, Australia, Milton; and a wide range of online Harvard Guides were also consulted.
- A table of contents, which can be used as a quick guide on each page
- examples of in-text citing for each source type
- basic explanations of key terms and symbols used in referencing
- more comprehensive coverage of source types
- rules for page numbers at the top of each page
- notes included with individual examples where relevant, highlighting details that may be overlooked
- tips for figures, tables and musical notation at Appendix A
- a quick guide for referencing articles at Appendix B
- a quick guide to in-text referencing at Appendix C
- a sample reference list at Appendix D