The economy of Tanzania is ranked second in East African Community and twelfth in the entire Africa. Before the industrial revolution and the period of global imperialism, Tanzanian economy depended entirely on Agriculture that accounted for 50% GDP. Cultivated crops were limited by topography and climatic conditions to a small fraction of the country and the Tanzanian industry only accounted for about 15% of GDP that mainly processed light consumer goods and agricultural products.
Since the country strongly depended on agriculture, its economy became vulnerable to commodity price fluctuations and weather shocks. During this period, the country suffered from lack of knowledge and infrastructure that was useful for developing and implementing agricultural technology. It made many citizens of Tanzania to suffer from hunger, unemployment, malnutrition, highly mortality rate and low living standards due to problems of droughts, floods and temperature shocks. Before Tanzanian’s industry revolution of 1961, the mining and tourism sectors were not fully established to provide sources of employment in the country.
There were various changes that occurred in the Tanzania economy after industrial revolution and the period of global imperialism. Soon after Tanzanian’s independence between 1961 and 1967, there was a considerable change in the economy. By the period of independence, Tanzania had only 12 graduates who were expected to improve economic development of the country by initiating transport and communication infrastructures development. It led to the growth of various component of Tanzania economy making the sector of industry and construction to contribute 22.2% GDP in 2013.
After industrial revolution, the economy of Tanzania advanced to include mining, construction, quarrying, production of electricity and natural gas and sufficient water supply. The improvement in the economic development and growth has enabled the country to reduce various environmental problems that affected Tanzania in the past.